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Biology

In this Section

Kenneth Wallace
Associate Professor
Department of Biology
165 Science Center
Clarkson University
PO Box 5805
Potsdam, NY 13699-5805
E-mail: kwallace@clarkson.edu
Phone: 315-268-4498
Fax: 315-268-7118

Education
B.S., University of Rochester, Molecular Genetics, Rochester, NY (1991)
Ph.D., Ohio State University- Molecular Genetics, Columbus, OH (1998)
Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (2003)

Courses Taught

  • BY350 Comparative Anatomy
  • BY352 Vertebrate Anatomy Lab
  • BY310/510  Developmental Biology
  • BY482/682 Molecular Genetics
  • BY300/622  Advances in Biology Research
  • BY405 Undergraduate Research

Research Interests  
My research focuses on development of the digestive system and effects of nanoparticles exposure.  I use zebrafish, which is an excellent model research organism.  Transparent zebrafish embryos develop externally over the course of five days.  At the end of embryogenesis there is a similar arrangement of digestive organs and cell types when compared to humans.  Zebrafish embryos also have extensive similarties to the genetics and physiology of human organ development with broad implications for human development and disease states.  


Developmental regulation of the intestinal epithelial stem cell compartment. The intestinal epithelium continuously replaces cells that undergo apoptosis. Cells proliferate in the crypts at the base of the villi to replace lost epithelial cells.  While there is intense investigation into the signals controlling proliferation of crypt epithelial cells, little is known about the formation of the developing stem cell niche.  We are investigating epithelial cells that play a role in regulation proliferation of the developing stem cell niche using zebrafish as a model system. 

Nanoparticle affects due to environmental exposure. Nanoparticles are being incorporated into a number of manufactured commercial products.  Physiochemical properties of material at the nanoscale act differently than their bulk counterparts.  Using the zebrafish model system in collaboration with Dr. Silvana Andreescu in Chemistry we are assessing the biocompatibility of nanoparticles of different compositions.  Electrochemical sensors are being developed to detect Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species to determine physiological changes resulting from nanoparticle exposure.

 
To investigate these topics, I am using mutant analysis, molecular biology techniques, histology, immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and antisense technology to knock down gene function in developing embryos. Each of these techniques is a powerful tool to identify molecular pathways involved in digestive development and function.                           
  
Publications (last 5 years)
(* denotes undergraduate co-author, # denotes Masters student who began as an undergraduate.)

Njagi, J, Ball, M.*, Best, M.*, Wallace, K.N., and Andreescu, E.S. (2010) Electrochemical quantification of serotonin in the embryonic zebrafish intestine. Analytical Chemistry, 82(5): 1822-1830.

Özel, R.E., Wallace, K.N., Andreescu S. (2011) Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 695 (1-2): 89-95.

Wallace, K.N. Fish digestive development. (2011) Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology. Eds. Farrell, T and Stevens, D., Elsevier.

Andreescu S., Gheorghiu, M, Ozel, R.E., Wallace, K.N. (2011) Mehodologies for Toxicity Monitoring and Nanotechnology Risk Assessment. Biotechnology and Nanotechnology Risk Assessment. Ed. Ripp, , ACS Books.

Özel, R.E., Wallace, K.N., Andreescu S. (2011) Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters.  Analytica Chimica Acta, 695 (1-2): 89-95. PMID: 21601035

Roach,G.#, Wallace, R.H., Cameron, A.*, Ozel, R.E., Hongay, C.F., Baral, R., Andreescu, S., and Wallace, K.N. (2013) Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility. Developmental Biology, 376(2):171-186. PMID: 23353550

Özel, R.E., Alkasir, R.S.J., Ray, K.*, Wallace, K.N., Andreescu, S. (2013) Comparative Evaluation of Intestinal Nitric Oxide in Embryonic Zebrafish Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles.  Small, 9 (24), 4250-4261.  PMID:  23873807

Özel, R.E., Hayat, A., Wallace, K.N., Andreescu, S.A., (2013) Effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on intestinal serotonin in zebrafish.  RSC Advances, 3 (35), 15296-15309. PMID:  24015353

Özel, RE, Wallace, KN, Andreescu, S. (2014) Alterations of intestinal serotonin following nanoparticle exposure in embryonic zebrafish.  Environmental Science:  Nano 1, 27-36.  PMID 24639893

Baral R. Wetie AG, Darie CC, Wallace KN. (2014) Mass spectometry for proteomics-based investigation using the zebrafish model system.  Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;806:331-40.  PMID:  24952190

Undergraduates in Lab (Last three years)

2012 

  1. Aisha Wood, Ronald McNair Program, project “Expression patterns of positive and negative basic helix loop helix transcription factors within the embryonic zebrafish intestine.”
  2. Caitlin Mincer, Ronald McNair Program, project titled “Expression patterns of Notch signaling pathway genes within the embryonic zebrafish intestine.” 
  3. Rachel Simons, project titled “Expression patterns of the 5HT4 receptor within the embryonic zebrafish intestine.” 
  4. Patricia Buetel, Ronald McNair Program, project titled  “Expression patterns of Notch signaling pathway genes within the embryonic zebrafish intestine.”
  5. Zachary Rodriguez, CSTEP Scholar, project titled “Expression patterns of Notch signaling pathway genes within the embryonic zebrafish intestine and analysis of motility defects.”
  6. Page Mackillop, Ronald McNair Program, project titled  “Expression patterns of Notch signaling pathway genes within the embryonic zebrafish intestine and analysis of motility defects.”

2013

  1. Zach Rodriguez, C-STEP Program, Clarkson University Biology, project “Expression patterns of Notch receptors within the embryonic zebrafish intestine.”
  2. Remy Cholhan, Clarkson University Biology, project titled “Expression patterns of the 5HT4 receptor within the embryonic zebrafish intestine.” 
  3. Eva Dodge, Clarkson University Biology, project titled  “Expression patterns of the 5HT4 receptor and role in intestinal motility within the embryonic zebrafish intestine.”
  4. Tai-Symone Rackley, Ronald McNair Program, project “Identification of Notch receiving cells within the intestinal epithelium.”
  5. Alyssa Cooley, Clarkson University Biology, project “Identification of Notch receiving cells within the intestinal epithelium.” 

 2014

  1. Tai-Symone Rackley, Ronald McNair Program, project “Identification of Notch receiving cells within the intestinal epithelium.” 
  2. Michelle Kelley, Clarkson University Biology, project “Characterizing rab11a in intestinal expression.”
  3. Natalie Hoke, Clarkson University Biology, “Characterizing the affect of ectopic expression the Notch intracellular domain within the intestine.” 
  4. Aimee Giffune, Clarkson University Chemical Engineering Clarkson/Trudeau Institute Summer research, project Studying neutrophil-bacterial pathogen interactions in a zebrafish model of Lyme disease.”
  5. Carlos Pulquerio, Cornell University Biology, projectFunction of Notch signaling pathway in formation of stem cell compartment in the development of intestinal stem cell within zebrafish.”